Collingsworth died in Berlin, Germany on July 23, from complications of bone marrow cancer. The present castle includes a 16th-century tower, the seat of the Campbell family of Craignish and Jura. In the 19th century it was sold to the Trench-Gascoigne family of Parlington Hall , who built a large extension to the tower. In the 20th century the house was restored, parts of the 19th-century extension were demolished; the Campbells of Craignish claim descent from Dugald Maul Campbell, first Laird of Craignish, the second son of Sir Archibald Gillespic Campbell, ancestor of the Dukes of Argyll.
The seventh laird left Christine Campbell , her weakness and imprudence caused the majority of the estate to be resigned to the Knight of Lochow, who took advantage of her. She was left with only a small portion of the upper part of Craignish under his superiority; the nearest male representative - Ronald Campbell - fought hard to win back his heritage, the Chief of Clan Campbell was obliged to allow him possession of a considerable portion of the estate, but retaining the superiority, inserting a condition in the grant that if there was no male heir in the direct line the lands were to revert automatically to the Argyll family.
The present castle was built in the 16th century as a tower house, measures It is said to have withstood a siege of six weeks by Colkitto MacDonald. Ranald MacCallum was made hereditary keeper of Craignish Castle in In the direct line ended, the rightful heir, a collateral relative by the name of Charles Campbell of Corranmore in Craignish had the misfortune to kill Gillies of Glenmore in a brawl; this compelled him to flee to Perthshire where he settled at Lochtayside under the protection of the Breadalbane family. This unfortunate event therefore prevented Charles from claiming the estate, so it fell into the hands of the Earls of Argyll.
A grandson of Duncan Campbell , 8th of Inverneill, in the s owned one of the apartments at Craignish Castle; the title'Baron of Craignish' was created for Edmund Kempt Campbell by the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha in , used by his descendants in Britain, though this was after the sale of Craignish. Trench-Gascoigne owned 5, acres in Argyll in the s. In the tower house was extended by the architect David Bryce , working to designs by William Burn. In the house was requisitioned for use as a home for children evacuated from Glasgow.
In the 20th century it was restored and divided into owned apartments; the castle is a category B listed building. Craignish Castle, Parlington Hall website. Youth For Understanding Youth For Understanding is an international educational exchange organization. A network of over 50 independent national organizations worldwide, YFU representatives work together to advance learning across cultures. Within each country's culture, YFU organizations subscribe to and operate under a common set of principles and standards that aim to facilitate cooperation and harmony; each year, YFU exchanges 4, students worldwide.
YFU conducts its exchange programs via direct contact between independent national organizations in over 50 countries; these autonomous organizations represent the international community network of YFU. Other YFU international activities are carried out by a volunteer International Advisory Council and a professional staff known as the International Secretariat. YFU organizations around the world subscribe to a set of basic operating and philosophic standards that embody YFU's commitment to conducting high quality programs; the standards set the basic requirements.
Youth for Understanding was founded by Rachel Andresen.
In it was proposed to church leaders in Ann Arbor, Michigan , USA that teenagers from Germany be brought to the United States to live with a family and attend high school for a year; as a result, 75 German teenagers arrived in Michigan in July and were hosted by volunteer U. In its first year it was supported by members of the Michigan Council of Churches under the motto "Youth for Understanding". During that year, Germany became a sovereign country, the US government stopped funding the exchange program with Germany, which continued as a not-for-profit activity between the two YFU organizations.
The first exchanges across the Pacific and to Mexico were established in , South America in YFU, Inc. During most of the s, YFU, Inc. The organization's offices were moved to Bethesda, Maryland in This reorganization reversed the organization's misfortunes. The committee, which meets twice a year, consists of 15 representatives from national organizations; the United States and Japan as the largest members are represented.
High school study abroad programs are offered during the summer and include options for group or individual travel; the summer programs are four to eight weeks. Semester long and gap-year programs are offered. All YFU programs center on the family living experience. Many of these scholarships are to Japan and Germany, which are among the most popular destinations for American students.
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However, new sponsorships, from both the government and corporate sectors, have allowed more scholarships to be awarded for study in other countries; the YFU USA International Student Program offers American families the opportunity to host an exchange student. European Educational Exchanges — Youth for Understanding is an international youth exchange non-profit organisation, founded in , it is the umbrella body for national Youth For Understanding organisations across Europe and consists of 28 members.
The mission of EEE-YFU is to advance intercultural understanding, mutual respect, social responsibility through educational exchanges for youth and communities.
YFU was founded shortly after the end of World War II , in , it is one of the world's oldest education exchange organisations and has programmes in about 60 countries ar. It is headquartered in Shibuya, Japan , with diplomatic status as a UN institution. Since , UNU has been authorized by the United Nations General Assembly to grant degrees, it provides a bridge between the UN and the international academic, policy-making and private sector communities. The university is headed by a rector , who holds the rank of Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations. David M. Malone of Canada.
Most notably, in , a vice-rectorate was established in Bonn, Germany , as a way of strengthening UNU's presence in Europe. UNU-ViE is dedicated to developing knowledge-based sustainable solutions for global problems and is, therefore, an active organizer of international science policy dialogues for sustainability. In December , the UN General Assembly amended the UNU Charter to make it possible for UNU to "grant and confer master's degrees and doctorates, diplomas and other academic distinctions under conditions laid down for that purpose in the statutes by the Council.
The university has several campuses spread over five continents, its headquarters are located at the UNU Centre in Japan. The role of the UN University is to generate new knowledge, enhance individual and institutional capacities, disseminate its useful information to relevant audiences. Within the scope of these five thematic clusters, the UN University undertakes: Cross-cultural, interdisciplinary research and targeted foresight and policy studies; as prescribed in the United Nations University Strategic Plan —, the 26 major topics of focus of the UN University's academic work fall within five interdependent thematic clusters: Peace and Human Rights.
Global Health and Sustainable Livelihoods. Global Change and Sustainable Development. Science, Technology and Society. Collectively, these thematic clusters define the programme space within which the UN University undertakes its academic activities. Some key perspectives pervade all aspects of the UN University's work. The academic work of the United Nations University is carried out by a global system of Institutes, Operating Units, Programmes located in more than 12 countries around the world. The President of Finland is the Grand Master of all three orders; the orders are administered by boards consisting of a chancellor, a vice-chancellor and at least four members.
It was introduced in an effort to preserve the prestige of the Order of the White Rose of Finland, which could have been diminished if granted too and to facilitate the awarding of honours for various types of merit; the Lion of Finland is awarded for military merit.
The ribbon for all classes of insignia is dark red; the President of Finland wears the Star of the Order of the Lion of Finland. On the establishment of the Order of the Lion of Finland. Berlin Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,, inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London ; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states.
Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree , which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain , Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg , the Kingdom of Prussia , the German Empire , the Weimar Republic , the Third Reich. Berlin in the s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany.
Following German reunification in , Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues.
Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination.
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Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics. Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living.
Since the s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale , that once constituted, together with the River Elbe , the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons , the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names.
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Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from , remnants of a house foundation dated to , found in excavations in Berlin Mitte ; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod.
In , they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In , Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until The name comes from the nine roses argent in the coat of arms of Finland ; the order's rules and regulations were confirmed on May 16, , its present rules date from June 1, The revised scale of ranks was confirmed most in ; the original decorations were designed by Akseli Gallen-Kallela. The swastikas of the collar was replaced by fir crosses in , designed by heraldic artist Gustaf von Numers ; the honour can be granted for military as well as civilian merit.
The ribbon for all classes is ultramarine.
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The Collar is worn four centimetres from either side and hangs at equal distances at the front and back; the Grand Cross and Commander marks are awarded with a breast star. Prime Ministers of Finland customarily receive the Grand Cross. Henry holds a Ph. Grand Cross with swords has been awarded to three Finnish. With Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City.
California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County , its largest county by area, San Bernardino County ; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture , fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others.
Although it accounts for only 1. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood—Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast.
The Central Valley , a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate , the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony.
The area became a part of Mexico in following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in after the Mexican—American War. The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, The California Gold Rush starting in led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico.
Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons , as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph.
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It's possible. Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise , inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10, years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America.
Various estimates of the native population range from , to ,; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans , ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms , such as the Chumash and Salinan.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. During the s Collingsworth and Brian R. Simmons, his British life partner of 38 years, divided their time between their homes in San Francisco and Craignish Castle on the west coast of Scotland.
Aside from consulting they acquired, upgraded, and managed apartment projects in San Francisco. He also served as the national treasurer of Log Cabin Republicans for three years.
In Collingsworth conceived and promoted the initiative known as the Millennium Technology Prize as Finland's legacy for serving as President of the European Union. The Prize of , to one million Euros is given every other year to someone who has made the greatest contribution to a technology that improves the quality of life and sustainable development. It is the world's largest award in the field of technology. The Prize is presented by the President of Finland. In the President of Finland conferred the Order of the Lion, Commander class, on Collingsworth making him one of the few foreigners to have received Finland's two highest decorations.
The U. President appointed him to a four-year term on the National Security Education Board in Between and Collingsworth lectured on European history aboard more than 25 cruises for the National Trust for Historic Preservation and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Collingsworth has had a lifelong interest in Imperial Russia. He visited Olga various times when she was living in exile in Canada in the s. She was a gifted painter primarily watercolors but also oils and Collingsworth has assembled one of the largest private collections of her art that has been shown in several exhibitions, including a special exhibition at the residence of the Russian Ambassador in Washington, D.
Petersburg, Russia. He has lectured extensively on the history of the Romanov Family and Imperial Russia. Collingsworth had a keen interest in encouraging young people to study abroad. Over the years, Collingsworth and Simmons gave out scholarships to students in many parts of the world. They have stayed in touch with many of these exceptional people and watched them launch impressive careers in their respective countries.
Simmons and Collingsworth traveled extensively. Collingsworth died in Berlin, Germany on July 23, from complications of bone marrow cancer. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.