Comments: Hey Gary, A follow up to your well written and very important investigative article. I just wondered why you stopped just short of telling the whole story to include what i will term the " Deception Contract Slavery Doctrine" that was adopted and put in place long before or the Fed or even subject slavery adopted even under the roman empire and earlier cultures of time. Our Republic system was designed to prevent it by placing the option of being a exempt citizen which are Article 4 Section"The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States".
To things become clear from this reading which first point is that a natural born citizen has "all Privileges" and can become president of the union of states with a capital in DC. The second is that we have this Privilege by way of an entitlement that can be used to contract these "Privileges away for an assumed enrolled benefit. Oddly enough as surely as those families and organizations who have worked this plan many times and on many continents down though the Ages.
They don't seem to be to shy at admitting what the plan is to those they think they can corrupt, and turn to the Dark side of Materialistic greedy behavior.
These clever people and those who help them progress against the Natural Born Citizen is that every step to deny these Persons of Interest, their pound of flesh and become here is my most favorite word Immunities of a Natural Born citizen as opposed to a Article 14 Subject Person under the Jurisdiction of All Governments. Approached from this point of view it becomes plain to see that most of the free people have become tricked into become property by way using British Laws of Admiralty in trading as a structure by moving it from the sea to the land via commerce exchanges and assignment of vessel property from birth to grave by the laws of contract.
Therefor the answer to both the immediate problem of the lions, tigers and bears statement "OH GOD we are Freaking Slaves traded by criminally sneaky people with a money making printers pushing us around because we are We who are Natural Born Citizens are very powerful in this republic and not because we can do this or we can do that. We are powerful because we are born with all immunity. In short what can not happen to anyone rich or poor it can not happen to us. We are immune free from oppression, free to act in commerce in any way we feel necessary and no one can impede us as we are immune to all civil law as a code of commerce yet can apply any law of commerce to aid and abed our action without fear of reprisal without a complaint, grand jury under common law for crimes.
Regards, David I have known this for a very long time. So the questions that truly need to be raised are: what type of person are you? The Good Book says you cannot serve two Masters, right?
So whom do you serve? Are you corporate because they say you are a legal person or are you a natural born person who has God given rights. You see when you pick up the banner of legal person you have supposedly waived your rights for priviledges. It up to you and all of us to announce what kind of person you are. Unfortuantely for most they have most of us in lock step with the Uniform Commercial Code and the law of contracts. A Birth certificate registration of birth is nothing more than a Contract.
Did they tell you you were signing a contract. Did you know you didn't have to register the birth? What ever happened to the family Bible and the recording of births? To make matters worse they have registered a "bastard" child. They show the father's name and the mother's maiden name and not the married name. Now why in the world would they do that? I suspect any contract has to be signed by two witnesses and of course those would be their own birth names If you think this has all happened by accident you are mistaken. The "banks" own you and all you own.
Don't pay your real estate property taxes and your house is paid off,,,,,guess who really owns it. Your car is never owned by you Don't tag it and watch who gets it. There is a very good book that everyone needs to read The Creature from Jeckyll Island by G. Edward Griffin. The founding of the Federal Reserve. It doesn't end there. The FED in not a bank owned and controlled by the U. It is owned by International families. So to take it a step further you are owned by foreigners. You body has been collaterallized and a bond has been issued on all your future earnings, your children and all their future earnings.
In 12th-century France, the courretiers de change were concerned with managing and regulating the debts of agricultural communities on behalf of the banks. Because these men also traded with debts, they could be called the first brokers. A common misbelief [ citation needed ] is that, in late 13th-century Bruges , commodity traders gathered inside the house of a man called Van der Beurze , and in they became the "Brugse Beurse", institutionalizing what had been, until then, an informal meeting, but actually, the family Van der Beurze had a building in Antwerp where those gatherings occurred;  the Van der Beurze had Antwerp, as most of the merchants of that period, as their primary place for trading.
The idea quickly spread around Flanders and neighboring countries and "Beurzen" soon opened in Ghent and Rotterdam. In the middle of the 13th century, Venetian bankers began to trade in government securities. In the Venetian government outlawed spreading rumors intended to lower the price of government funds. Bankers in Pisa , Verona , Genoa and Florence also began trading in government securities during the 14th century.
This was only possible because these were independent city-states not ruled by a duke but a council of influential citizens. Italian companies were also the first to issue shares. Companies in England and the Low Countries followed in the 16th century.
There is a remedy to become "Holder in Due Course/Beneficiary of the Trust":
Around this time, a joint stock company --one whose stock is owned jointly by the shareholders--emerged and became important for colonization of what Europeans called the "New World". In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch pioneered several financial innovations that helped lay the foundations of the modern financial system.
Soon thereafter, a lively trade in various derivatives , among which options and repos, emerged on the Amsterdam market. The stock market is one of the most important ways for companies to raise money, along with debt markets which are generally more imposing but do not trade publicly. The liquidity that an exchange affords the investors enables their holders to quickly and easily sell securities.
This is an attractive feature of investing in stocks, compared to other less liquid investments such as property and other immoveable assets. History has shown that the price of stocks and other assets is an important part of the dynamics of economic activity, and can influence or be an indicator of social mood. An economy where the stock market is on the rise is considered to be an up-and-coming economy. The stock market is often considered the primary indicator of a country's economic strength and development. Rising share prices, for instance, tend to be associated with increased business investment and vice versa.
Share prices also affect the wealth of households and their consumption. Therefore, central banks tend to keep an eye on the control and behavior of the stock market and, in general, on the smooth operation of financial system functions. Exchanges also act as the clearinghouse for each transaction, meaning that they collect and deliver the shares, and guarantee payment to the seller of a security. This eliminates the risk to an individual buyer or seller that the counterparty could default on the transaction.
The smooth functioning of all these activities facilitates economic growth in that lower costs and enterprise risks promote the production of goods and services as well as possibly employment. In this way the financial system is assumed to contribute to increased prosperity, although some controversy exists as to whether the optimal financial system is bank-based or market-based.
Recent events such as the Global Financial Crisis have prompted a heightened degree of scrutiny of the impact of the structure of stock markets   called market microstructure , in particular to the stability of the financial system and the transmission of systemic risk. The financial system in most western countries has undergone a remarkable transformation. One feature of this development is disintermediation. A portion of the funds involved in saving and financing, flows directly to the financial markets instead of being routed via the traditional bank lending and deposit operations.
The general public interest in investing in the stock market, either directly or through mutual funds , has been an important component of this process. Statistics show that in recent decades, shares have made up an increasingly large proportion of households' financial assets in many countries. In the s, in Sweden , deposit accounts and other very liquid assets with little risk made up almost 60 percent of households' financial wealth, compared to less than 20 percent in the s.
The major part of this adjustment is that financial portfolios have gone directly to shares but a good deal now takes the form of various kinds of institutional investment for groups of individuals, e. The trend towards forms of saving with a higher risk has been accentuated by new rules for most funds and insurance, permitting a higher proportion of shares to bonds. Similar tendencies are to be found in other developed countries. In all developed economic systems, such as the European Union, the United States, Japan and other developed nations, the trend has been the same: saving has moved away from traditional government insured "bank deposits to more risky securities of one sort or another".
A second transformation is the move to electronic trading to replace human trading of listed securities. Investors may temporarily move financial prices away from market equilibrium. Over-reactions may occur—so that excessive optimism euphoria may drive prices unduly high or excessive pessimism may drive prices unduly low. Economists continue to debate whether financial markets are generally efficient. According to one interpretation of the efficient-market hypothesis EMH , only changes in fundamental factors, such as the outlook for margins, profits or dividends, ought to affect share prices beyond the short term, where random 'noise' in the system may prevail.
The 'hard' efficient-market hypothesis does not explain the cause of events such as the crash in , when the Dow Jones Industrial Average plummeted This event demonstrated that share prices can fall dramatically even though no generally agreed upon definite cause has been found: a thorough search failed to detect any 'reasonable' development that might have accounted for the crash.
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Note that such events are predicted to occur strictly by chance , although very rarely. It seems also to be the case more generally that many price movements beyond that which are predicted to occur 'randomly' are not occasioned by new information; a study of the fifty largest one-day share price movements in the United States in the post-war period seems to confirm this. A 'soft' EMH has emerged which does not require that prices remain at or near equilibrium, but only that market participants not be able to systematically profit from any momentary market ' inefficiencies '.
Moreover, while EMH predicts that all price movement in the absence of change in fundamental information is random i. Various explanations for such large and apparently non-random price movements have been promulgated. For instance, some research has shown that changes in estimated risk, and the use of certain strategies, such as stop-loss limits and value at risk limits, theoretically could cause financial markets to overreact.
But the best explanation seems to be that the distribution of stock market prices is non-Gaussian  in which case EMH, in any of its current forms, would not be strictly applicable. Other research has shown that psychological factors may result in exaggerated statistically anomalous stock price movements contrary to EMH which assumes such behaviors 'cancel out'. Psychological research has demonstrated that people are predisposed to 'seeing' patterns, and often will perceive a pattern in what is, in fact, just noise , e.
In the present context this means that a succession of good news items about a company may lead investors to overreact positively, driving the price up. A period of good returns also boosts the investors' self-confidence, reducing their psychological risk threshold. Another phenomenon—also from psychology—that works against an objective assessment is group thinking. As social animals, it is not easy to stick to an opinion that differs markedly from that of a majority of the group.
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An example with which one may be familiar is the reluctance to enter a restaurant that is empty; people generally prefer to have their opinion validated by those of others in the group. In one paper the authors draw an analogy with gambling. In times of market stress, however, the game becomes more like poker herding behavior takes over. The players now must give heavy weight to the psychology of other investors and how they are likely to react psychologically.
In the run-up to , the media amplified the general euphoria, with reports of rapidly rising share prices and the notion that large sums of money could be quickly earned in the so-called new economy stock market. Stock markets play an essential role in growing industries that ultimately affect the economy through transferring available funds from units that have excess funds savings to those who are suffering from funds deficit borrowings Padhi and Naik, In other words, capital markets facilitate funds movement between the above-mentioned units.
This process leads to the enhancement of available financial resources which in turn affects the economic growth positively. Moreover, both economic and financial theories argue that stock prices are affected by macroeconomic trends. Research carried out states mid-sized companies outperform large cap companies and smaller companies have higher returns historically. Sometimes, the market seems to react irrationally to economic or financial news, even if that news is likely to have no real effect on the fundamental value of securities itself. Therefore, the stock market may be swayed in either direction by press releases, rumors, euphoria and mass panic.
Over the short-term, stocks and other securities can be battered or buoyed by any number of fast market-changing events, making the stock market behavior difficult to predict.
Emotions can drive prices up and down, people are generally not as rational as they think, and the reasons for buying and selling are generally accepted. Behaviorists argue that investors often behave irrationally when making investment decisions thereby incorrectly pricing securities, which causes market inefficiencies, which, in turn, are opportunities to make money. The Dow Jones Industrial Average biggest gain in one day was A stock market crash is often defined as a sharp dip in share prices of stocks listed on the stock exchanges.
In parallel with various economic factors, a reason for stock market crashes is also due to panic and investing public's loss of confidence. Often, stock market crashes end speculative economic bubbles. There have been famous stock market crashes that have ended in the loss of billions of dollars and wealth destruction on a massive scale. An increasing number of people are involved in the stock market, especially since the social security and retirement plans are being increasingly privatized and linked to stocks and bonds and other elements of the market.
There have been a number of famous stock market crashes like the Wall Street Crash of , the stock market crash of —4 , the Black Monday of , the Dot-com bubble of , and the Stock Market Crash of One of the most famous stock market crashes started October 24, , on Black Thursday. It was the beginning of the Great Depression. Another famous crash took place on October 19, — Black Monday.
Your Birth Certificate is a security traded on the Stock Exchange , how much are you worth ?
The crash began in Hong Kong and quickly spread around the world. By the end of October, stock markets in Hong Kong had fallen Black Monday itself was the largest one-day percentage decline in stock market history — the Dow Jones fell by The names "Black Monday" and "Black Tuesday" are also used for October 28—29, , which followed Terrible Thursday—the starting day of the stock market crash in The crash in raised some puzzles — main news and events did not predict the catastrophe and visible reasons for the collapse were not identified.
This event raised questions about many important assumptions of modern economics, namely, the theory of rational human conduct , the theory of market equilibrium and the efficient-market hypothesis. For some time after the crash, trading in stock exchanges worldwide was halted, since the exchange computers did not perform well owing to enormous quantity of trades being received at one time.
This halt in trading allowed the Federal Reserve System and central banks of other countries to take measures to control the spreading of worldwide financial crisis. In the United States the SEC introduced several new measures of control into the stock market in an attempt to prevent a re-occurrence of the events of Black Monday. Since the early s, many of the largest exchanges have adopted electronic 'matching engines' to bring together buyers and sellers, replacing the open outcry system.
Electronic trading now accounts for the majority of trading in many developed countries. Computer systems were upgraded in the stock exchanges to handle larger trading volumes in a more accurate and controlled manner. The SEC modified the margin requirements in an attempt to lower the volatility of common stocks, stock options and the futures market. The circuit breaker halts trading if the Dow declines a prescribed number of points for a prescribed amount of time. Eugene Stanley introduced a method to identify online precursors for stock market moves, using trading strategies based on search volume data provided by Google Trends.
The movements of the prices in a market or section of a market are captured in price indices called stock market indices, of which there are many, e.
Such indices are usually market capitalization weighted, with the weights reflecting the contribution of the stock to the index. Financial innovation has brought many new financial instruments whose pay-offs or values depend on the prices of stocks. Some examples are exchange-traded funds ETFs , stock index and stock options , equity swaps , single-stock futures , and stock index futures.
These last two may be traded on futures exchanges which are distinct from stock exchanges—their history traces back to commodity futures exchanges , or traded over-the-counter. As all of these products are only derived from stocks, they are sometimes considered to be traded in a hypothetical derivatives market , rather than the hypothetical stock market.
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Stock that a trader does not actually own may be traded using short selling ; margin buying may be used to purchase stock with borrowed funds; or, derivatives may be used to control large blocks of stocks for a much smaller amount of money than would be required by outright purchase or sales. In short selling, the trader borrows stock usually from his brokerage which holds its clients' shares or its own shares on account to lend to short sellers then sells it on the market, betting that the price will fall.
The trader eventually buys back the stock, making money if the price fell in the meantime and losing money if it rose. Exiting a short position by buying back the stock is called "covering". This strategy may also be used by unscrupulous traders in illiquid or thinly traded markets to artificially lower the price of a stock.
Hence most markets either prevent short selling or place restrictions on when and how a short sale can occur. The practice of naked shorting is illegal in most but not all stock markets. In margin buying, the trader borrows money at interest to buy a stock and hopes for it to rise. Most industrialized countries have regulations that require that if the borrowing is based on collateral from other stocks the trader owns outright, it can be a maximum of a certain percentage of those other stocks' value.
A margin call is made if the total value of the investor's account cannot support the loss of the trade. Upon a decline in the value of the margined securities additional funds may be required to maintain the account's equity, and with or without notice the margined security or any others within the account may be sold by the brokerage to protect its loan position. The investor is responsible for any shortfall following such forced sales. Regulation of margin requirements by the Federal Reserve was implemented after the Crash of Before that, speculators typically only needed to put up as little as 10 percent or even less of the total investment represented by the stocks purchased.
Other rules may include the prohibition of free-riding: putting in an order to buy stocks without paying initially there is normally a three-day grace period for delivery of the stock , but then selling them before the three-days are up and using part of the proceeds to make the original payment assuming that the value of the stocks has not declined in the interim.
There are many different approaches to investing. Many strategies can be classified as either fundamental analysis or technical analysis. Fundamental analysis refers to analyzing companies by their financial statements found in SEC filings , business trends, general economic conditions, etc. Technical analysis studies price actions in markets through the use of charts and quantitative techniques to attempt to forecast price trends regardless of the company's financial prospects. One example of a technical strategy is the Trend following method, used by John W.
Henry and Ed Seykota , which uses price patterns and is also rooted in risk control and diversification. Additionally, many choose to invest via the index method. The principal aim of this strategy is to maximize diversification, minimize taxes from too frequent trading, and ride the general trend of the stock market which, in the U. Responsible investment emphasizes and requires a long term horizon on the basis of fundamental analysis only, avoiding hazards in the expected return of the investment; socially responsible investing is also recommended [ by whom?
According to much national or state legislation, a large array of fiscal obligations are taxed for capital gains. Taxes are charged by the state over the transactions, dividends and capital gains on the stock market, in particular in the stock exchanges. These fiscal obligations vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Some countries [ which? From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Foreign exchange Currency Exchange rate. Forwards Options. Spot market Swaps. Economic systems.
Economic theories. Related topics. Anti-capitalism Capitalist state Consumerism Crisis theory Criticism of capitalism Cronyism Culture of capitalism Exploitation Globalization History History of theory Market economy Periodizations of capitalism Perspectives on capitalism Post-capitalism Speculation Spontaneous order Venture philanthropy. Anarcho-capitalism Authoritarian capitalism Democratic capitalism Dirigism Eco-capitalism Humanistic capitalism Inclusive capitalism Liberal capitalism Liberalism Libertarian capitalism Neo-capitalism Neoliberalism Objectivism Ordoliberalism Right-libertarianism Social democracy.
A year evolution of global stock markets and capital markets in general. Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser in Dutch , the foremost centre of global securities markets in the 17th century. Main article: Stock exchange. Main article: Stock market crash. Further information: List of stock market crashes and bear markets. Main article: Stock market prediction.
Main article: Stock market index. Main article: Derivative finance. Main article: Short selling. Main article: margin buying. Main article: Thomson Reuters league tables. Main article: Investment strategy. Main article: Capital gains tax. Equity crowdfunding List of market opening times List of stock exchanges List of stock market indices Modeling and analysis of financial markets Securities market participants United States Securities regulation in the United States Stock market bubble Stock market cycles Stock market data systems.
Claim: "Your birth certificate is worth millions" | Metabunk
Until the early s, a bourse was not exactly a stock exchange in its modern sense. With the founding of the Dutch East India Company VOC in and the rise of Dutch capital markets in the early 17th century, the 'old' bourse a place to trade commodities , government and municipal bonds found a new purpose — a formal exchange that specialize in creating and sustaining secondary markets in the securities such as bonds and shares of stock issued by corporations — or a stock exchange as we know it today. The World Bank. Retrieved January 9, February 16, Retrieved September 29, Retrieved March 11, Retrieved May 31, Retrieved December 17, United States Census Bureau.
September August January 1, Federal Reserve Board of Governors.